Screening 1
Screening 2
Screening 3
These are specialized dynamic studies where in the case of the IVP and VCU the upper and lower urinary tract is evaluated.
The sialogram evaluates the salivary glands and the dacrocystogram the lacrimal system.
Speech studies evaluate speech abnormalities.
Use is made of water soluble contrast material in all the investigations other than the speech studies where barium is used.
Fluoroscopy is used to obtain multiple images which are evaluated.
Due to the use of x-rays, female patients must make sure they are not pregnant.
This study evaluates the structure and to some extent the function of the renal tract (kidneys, ureters and bladder).
 
Specialised x-ray equipment and technique is used called tomography.
 
Pregnancy must be excluded due to the radiation risk.
 
Intravenous contrast material is used. A history of allergies is thus important.
 
The IVP has largely been superseded by CAT scanning which excludes renal stones and also defines other pathology.

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Indications:
  • Renal stones
  • Obstruction
  • Infection/inflammation
  • Tumours
A sialogram is an x-ray of the salivary glands. The parotid and the submandibular glands are the salivary glands which are amenable to imaging. The opening for the parotid gland is adjacent to the 2nd molar in the upper jaw. The opening for the submandibular glands is in the midline under the tongue.
 
The study involves radiation so be sure you are not pregnant.
 
Iodine contrast material is used so a history of allergies must be given to our staff.

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Since the late fifties video fluoroscopy has been used for assessment for of speech abnormalities.
 
The aim of the study is to establish factors that contributes to velopharyngeal incompetency in a patient with a repaired cleft palate. Palate repair alone is sometimes not sufficient to achieve velopharygeal closure e.g. the palate may be short and scarred with reduced mobility or the pharynx may be too deep for a palate that is too short. Most of the information about the site, height and amount of closure can be obtained.

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This is a technique in which a person's urethra and urinary bladder are observed while the person is urinating.

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Indications
 
To evaluate:
  • Strictures
  • Vesicoureteric reflux
  • Tumours
  • Irritable bladder
  • Bladder rupture in the setting of trauma
  • Follow-up for bladder rupture
  • To evaluate the prostate
  • In patients being considered for kidney transplant.
This is a radiograph of the lacrimal apparatus.
 
The study is done to determine the presence of and localising a site of obstruction.
 
Iodinated contrast material is used.
 
Due to radiation you must not be pregnant.

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